Female Sterilization—Tubal ligation or “tying tubes”— A woman can have her fallopian tubes tied (or closed) so that sperm and eggs cannot meet for fertilization. The procedure can be done in a hospital or in an outpatient surgical center. You can go home the same day of the surgery and resume your normal activities within a few days. This method is effective immediately.
Although most women and men who undergo contraceptive sterilization do not regret having had the procedure, the permanence of the method is an important consideration, as regret has been documented in studies. For example, the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization (CREST) study found that women who were younger at the time of the procedure were more likely to experience regret.
Male Sterilization–Vasectomy—This operation is done to keep a man’s sperm from going to his penis, so his ejaculate never has any sperm in it that can fertilize an egg. The procedure is done at an outpatient surgical center. The man can go home the same day. Recovery time is less than one week. After the operation, a man visits his doctor for tests to count his sperm and to make sure the sperm count has dropped to zero; this takes about 12 weeks. Another form of birth control should be used until the man’s sperm count has dropped to zero.
(Info from CDC – http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/unintendedpregnancy/contraception.htm)